By Michele Fratianni
This quantity bargains with the financial historical past of Italy from independence in 1861 to 1992. It offers the 1st entire research of a rustic that has skilled assorted and infrequently dramatic financial stipulations. The e-book contributes in a singular manner not just to the financial debate, but in addition to economic and institutional questions. The authors mix monetary idea, statistical facts, and heritage in an available means that are meant to end up necessary to either financial historians and financial economists.
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Additional resources for A Monetary History of Italy (Studies in Macroeconomic History)
Government spending as a proportion of national income displays a very sharp upward trend: it goes from 13 in the gold standard years to almost 59 in the eighties. Also tax revenues, as a proportion of national income, have a sharp positive trend, but systematically fall short of spending; hence Italy suffers from endemic budget deficits. These tend to be much smaller in the gold standard years than in later periods and twice as large after BI became the monopolist of issue. Abstracting from the two world wars, the seventies and the eighties were periods of high budgetary financing.
As noted, BI acts as the agent of the Treasury (Bank for International Settlements 1963, p. 199). The services performed by BI on behalf of the Treasury include payment orders by various government departments, collection of taxes due Structure, main themes 27 to the state, and the sale and redemption of government bills and bonds. These transactions are recorded in the 'conto corrente per il servizio di tesoreria', which is conceptually equivalent to 'deposit due to US Treasury' in the balance sheet of the Federal Reserve System (Friedman and Schwartz 1963, p.
Banks also respond to lower market rates of interest by raising, on the margin, the ratio of excess reserves to deposits. 4) where E(X,y) denotes the elasticity of x with respect to y. The monetary base influences the multiplier through the market rate of interest, /, and the price of capital, P. In the Brunner-Meltzer model (1989) e(ra,z), z(P,MB)>0; e(i,MB), z(m,P)<0. 5 In Italy, bank deposits have had a relatively low transaction value and have paid relatively high explicit rates of interest.