By Timothy E. Josling, Stefan Tangermann, T. K. Warley (auth.)
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Additional info for Agriculture in the GATT
It was especially discouraging for the smaller exporters who needed US support if any progress was to be made in holding back the rising tide of agricultural protectionism in Europe and Japan. Furthermore, the retention of the waiver over the following forty years - despite the rebukes voiced at each year's review - did little to strengthen the credibility of the United States in its later attempts to seek the liberalization of trade in agriculture. The 1955 United States agricultural waiver was to have a chilling effect on international agricultural trade policy.
Some were sharply focused on the problems of trade in agriculture. Those recommendations that were so focused were explicit. Essentially, the Committee advised the countries of Western Europe and North America to lower the degree of protection accorded their agricultural producers; to permit freer trade in agricultural products; to make wider use of the deficiency payment as a farm income support measure (because of its transparency and avoidance of demand-side distortions); and to introduce programmes to assist agricultural structural reform and farm modernization.
The agricultural trade problem created by the use of quantitative restrictions by the continental European countries in the 1950s was never resolved. In the case of the European Community countries, it was overtaken by the problems created by the replacement of national import quotas with the Community's import levies. The other West European countries were to continue to use import quotas for agricultural products for another three decades. In most of these cases, quantitative import restrictions were 'grandfathered' either by the Protocol of Provisional Application or by the protocols of accession.