By Majid Fakhry
This is often a very good resource on a tough topic. Islamic neoplatonism is a posh internet of principles made fairly obtainable through this publication. Thankyou for the scholarship it should have taken to provide it.
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79. Cf. Kita¯b al-Burha¯n, p. 48. Al-Fa¯ra¯bi and the Greek Legacy 29 followed by a discussion of those actions or affections of the soul dealt with in the Parva Naturalia, known to the Arabs as Sense and Sensibles (Kita¯b al-Hiss wa‘l-Mahsu¯s), of which a large part was known to the Arabs. Those ˙ actions and affections include health and sickness, youth and old age, life and death, sleep and divination by dreams, memory and recollection. In discussing divination by dreams, we are told by al-Fa¯ra¯bi, Aristotle observed that the natural powers of the soul are not sufficient to explain those prognostications and forebodings which warn of future events.
P. 43. 6. Cf. Laws, I, 628 d. 8. Cf. Laws, I, 631 c. 14. Cf. Laws, II, 653. 24 Al-Fa¯ra¯bi, Founder of Islamic Neoplatonism In Book V, Plato, we are told, speaks of the soul as the most divine element in the human being, the element that should therefore be favored next to God. It is incumbent on the lawgiver to lay down the laws of caring for the soul and the body and the ways in which the cardinal virtues of justice, temperance and courage are instilled in the soul through a process of habituation.
The second alternative is equally unwarranted, for the consensus (ijtima¯‘ )54 of learned scholars is known with certainty to be conclusive evidence for the truthfulness of their positions. This leaves the third alternative; namely, that those who allege that there is any disagreement on fundamentals (usu¯l ) between the Two Sages suffer actually from ignorance or poor judgment, as al-Fa¯ra¯bi then proceeds to show. In support of this thesis, he begins by conceding that there were indeed certain differences of temper or demeanor between the Two Sages, such as Plato’s otherworldliness and contempt for earthly possessions, as contrasted with Aristotle’s worldliness, as illustrated by his marriage, his service to Alexander, the king, and his amassing of fortune.